Middle School History
Last updated 1 year ago
Medieval lives - The Medieval Church - History Learning Site
The Medieval Church played a far greater role in Medieval England than the Church does today. In Medieval England, the Church dominated everybody’s life. All Medieval people – be they village peasants or towns people – believed that God, Heaven and Hell all existed. From the very earliest of ages, the people were taught that …
Online Education Platform for Content | Newsela
(From left) First lady Melania Trump, President Donald Trump, Major General Bradley Becker, Vice President Mike Pence and his wife, Karen, review troops on the East Front of the Capitol in Washington, D.C., January 20, 2017, during the presidential inauguration. Photo by: Michael Heiman/Pool Photo via AP
Unit 5 - The Roman Republic and Empire The ￼Roman Republic (above) from 500 BC to the death of Julius Caesar 44 BC The Roman Empire (below) from death of Julius Caesar (44 BC) to death of Marcus Aurelius (180 AD) The Roman Empire from death of Julius Caesar (44 BC) to death M￼arcus Aurelius (190 AD) 5.1. Early Rome Much of what we know about early Italy come from the Histora Naturalis by Pliny the Elder which was published around 77-79 A.D. You can read the work’s description of early Italy beginning at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0137%3Abook%3D3%3Achapter%3D6. Maps above are from http://www.mitchellteachers.net/WorldHistory/AncientRome/UnderstandingthePunicWars.html (Expansion of the Roman Republic) and http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/corinthians/empire.stm (Expansion of the Roman Empire) Many people groups possess mythological descriptions of their origins, often contained in the form of totems -- ancient heroes, animals, or even plants and trees, from which that group of people emerged at first on earth. According to such mythologies the Germans emerged suddenly from a crack in the earth’s surface. Many primitive tribes believe that a totem animal was their ancient ancestor, hence the totem poles among the Alaskan tribes. The story of the origins of Rome is no different. It features the twins, Romulus and Remus, who probably are mythical persons. 5.2. Romulus and Remus According to legend, the king of a small community in Italy ordered his twin sons to be thrown into the Tiber River. As with the story of Cronos and his son Zeus, the king feared that when they reached adulthood the twins would seize his position. They landed in a shallow part of the river and were suckled by a female wolf. They were discovered by a shepherd who took them home and raised them as sons. When they reached maturity, Romulus murdered Remus (a memory of Cain and Abel?) and formed the community of Rome. ￼The small town was established on the banks of the Tiber River on an elevated site to give protection. Natural resources in the area provided timber, clay, straw, and abundant fish for the construction of houses and protective walls and for food. Most of the inhabitants were farmers and cattle herders. Romulus (hence the name “Rome”) forged numerous alliances with neighboring peoples in order to fortify and protect “for eternity” the city which eventually gained the name, “The Eternal City.” The time period for this story is not ancient. Most sources place it around 750-700 B.C. (Image above from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:She-wolf_suckles_Romulus_and_Remus.jpg ) 5.3. The Etruscans and the Roman Kingdom (753-509 B.C.) The Etruscans originated in Lydia in what is today western Turkey. They migrated into northern Italy and in the 6th century moved south from Tuscany northern Italy to the Tiber. When they arrived at the Tiber and the early settlements around present-day Rome, they cleared the mud huts of the original inhabitants, dug canals for irrigation and draining of swamps, and organized cattle herding into a sustainable industry. They established an absolute monarchy with a Senate, a constitution, and a popular assembly. The Senate functioned as an advisory council to the king, and the assembly had matters referred to it for popular input, which the king could accept or ignore. According to mythology, Romulus served as the first king. The Latins entered Italy by about 1000 B.C. and by 500 B.C. dominated the Etruscans. 5.4. The Roman Republic (509-27 B.C.) The monarchy or Kingdom of Rome lasted until 509 B.C. when its absolutism was replaced in an uprising of the nobility, forming the Roman Republic. The Etruscan king was killed and a Republic was established. The Republic lasted from 509 B.C. until the formation of the Roman Empire in 27 B.C. The king was replaced by two consuls who were elected by the populace annually (the idea was you can’t trust one ruler or he’ll attempt to rule absolutely, and can’t allow him to serve for long periods of time or he will rule forever!), and the Senate was given expanded powers (rather than being merely an advisory group as they were under the former monarchy). Eventually the Senate was given the supreme authority in the Republic. All officials served one-year terms, except during times of emergency, so that no one person could gain power over his fellow citizens. Over time a constitution was adopted that featured an early form of separation of powers and a system of checks and balances. About 500 B.C., just as the Republic was being established, Rome entered into a treaty with the powerful Greek colony, Carthage, located on the North African coast. Later Rome and Carthage were to engage in three bloody wars, called the Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.). And about 500 B.C. the first temple in honor of Jupiter was built on the Capitol (the high point of Rome). Jupiter was the Roman name for the Greek god, Zeus. It was early Rome and not Athens that was to lay the greatest amount of groundwork for later democracies. ￼ 5.5. Political Structure of the Republic To ensure that a dictatorship or absolute ruler could not emerge, the Republic developed a series of assemblies, assuring that every class within society would have representation. The citizens were divided into centuries (100 citizens) and 35 tribes, 4 major tribes in the city of Rome (urban dwellers) and 31 rural tribes (farmers, landowners). ￼The Senate: The term “senate” comes from the Latin “senex” or “old man.” The senate was made up of the older, highly respected men of Rome. The Senate began during the Roman monarchy, then gained additional power in the Republic, but with the advent of the Empire, declined in its power and influence. The Senate, however, endured through the several sacks of Rome by the barbarians, and even functioned under several Germanic emperors. The Senate finally ceased to exist in 603 A.D. Legislative Assemblies: two forms-- committees (comprised of all citizens) and councils (comprised of citizens chose for special abilities) Assembly of the Centuries: important decisions required a majority of the centuries for approval, the centuries alone could declare war, ratify treaties, approve the official census, serve as grand jury for the highest legal cases, and elect magistrates; the Centuries was usually chaired by one of the consuls. Assembly of the 35 Tribes: it was chaired by one of the consuls, was composed of representatives from each of the 35 tribes, did not act on laws (this was reserved for the Centuries) but did elect military consuls, elected overseers of public buildings and public works, and were responsible to maintain public order and peace, and regulate public holidays and festivals; the tribes were not ethnic divisions but were based on geographic divisions. Plebian Council: each of the 35 tribes selected representative to the Council, which passed most laws, and served as a court of appeals. Magistrates: served as judges, overseers of legal affairs, enforces of an early form of habeas corpus (an accused person’s right to be heard and not held without sufficient evidence) were selected by the Assembly of the Centuries. Consuls: were elected by the populace annually from among the magistrates, presided over the Senate and the Assemblies, had supreme civil and military powers, were heads of the Roman government, and when outside of Rome commanded an army. 5.6. Social Arrangement in the Republic Roman society in the Republic developed a hierarchical format, dividing the people into two classes: the patricians (land-owning aristocracy) and plebians (eveyone else -- until slavery developed). Increasingly the patricians were granted increased authority and power in government. As the Republic took on a more military-expansionist quality, success in warfare became connected with advancement in politics. This gave rise to powerful military/political leaders. Under their leadership the Republic within its first two centuries (500-300 B.C.) took control over Spain, North Africa, Greece, all of Italy, and the southern parts of France. By the first century B.C. most of France was under Roman control as well as parts of Germany up to the Danube River. Expansion and Slavery impact Roman Society Carthage in North Africa was a rival for power in the Mediterranean. The vast harvests of corn and wheat made it the dominant food production area. It also developed a high quality military. By 264 B.C. The two rival states went to war. General Hannibal of Carthage, during the second of the three Punic Wars invaded Italy, crossing the Alps with his troops, including a unit of 37 elephants. Hannibal remained in Italy for 13 years but was never able to conquer Rome. Rome was originally a land army, but copied the ships of the Carthaginians, who at the time were masters of the Mediterranean Ocean. In two months they amazingly built over 300 war ships and trained 10,000 marines to combat Carthage. In retaliation, Rome sent warships and marines to Carthage. Hannibal was killed. Rome with its navy invaded Carthage, burned it to the ground, and poured salt onto the soil so that a city could never again be built there. Rome also fought another competitor, this time Macedonia in northern Greece. Roman armies defeated the Macedonians in 168 B.C. To the south in Attica and the Peloponnese the Attican League rose in rebellion against the Roman invaders, but were quickly defeated. The leading city of the rebellious Attican League, Corinth, was burned to the ground by the Romans. The Greeks had also established another empire, the Seleucid Empire, in Syria. A series of heartless and corrupt kings led to a social and political chaos so bad that in 64 BC Rome had to step in and conquer the area in order to quell the confusion. This is but one of several times that God used pagan armies as his tool to bring justice to evil kings and kingdoms. Jerusalem had been under Seleucid control for many years. When they heard a false rumor in 167 BC that Antiochus Epiphanes IV, king of the Seleucids, had been killed in battle in Egypt, a rebellion broke out in the city. Hearing the news, Antiochus speedily made his way from Egypt to Jerusalem. The outcome was described by the writers of the Second Book of Maccabbees: “When these happenings were reported to the king, he thought that Judea was in revolt. Raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem by storm. He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met and to slay those who took refuge in their houses. There was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the same number being sold into slavery.” (II Maccabbees 5:11-14) In addition, Antiochus ordered all Jewish worship to cease, killed those who disobeyed, and profaned the temple by offering pigs on the holy altar. The Jews referred to this event as “the Abomination of Desolation.” Expansion meant conquest. Conquest led to the practice of slavery. Conquered peoples were imported to Rome to serve the citizens. For many years the plebians, out of loyalty to the Republic, overlooked the need for social reforms, but with the influx of slaves things were about to change. New conquests resulted in a flood of both freemen and slaves to the city. As a result, two major problems arose. First, it filled the tribes and Council with newcomers who were not content to allow the status quo to continue. (“The foreigners are taking over the city.”) Second, the influx of newcomers and slaves created massive unemployment. (“Send them back where they came from! They’re willing to work for nothing and are stealing all the jobs!!”) 5.7. The Republic Comes to An End (44 B.C.) -- The First Triumvirate, Civil War, and Julias Caesar ￼ The unrest in Rome due to massive unemployment and the influx of new people led to the rise of radical rivalries. A series of assassinations, grabs for power, and appointments of individuals by the Senate outside the normal rules of the constitution, caused a crisis. The Senate in 60-59 B.C., to rescue the Republic and bring order to Rome, approved the private arrangement that had been made by three generals to form a triumvirate -- contrary to the normal system of two co-consuls appointed by the Senate. The three arbitrarily chose themselves to take the power in what was basically a military coup. The three were Julius Caesar from his assignment in England, Pompey from his station in Spain, and Crassus in his station from Syria. Crassus had earlier gained fame for having defeated the slave revolt in Italy led by the slave Spartacus. The idea that three such ambitious generals could share the power did not work. Soon conflict broke out with each of the three seeking sole authority. In 60 B.C. troops from Gaul who were loyal to Julius Caesar, went with him to meet the troops loyal to Pompey at Rome. They had earlier crossed into Northern Italy from Gaul in 49 B.C. and dared to cross the Rubicon River in violation of Roman custom. In order to prevent armed revolutions in Rome, generals returning to Rome were forbidden to allow their troops to cross the Rubicon en mass. The Rubicon was the boundary line. Pompey fled from Rome for Greece, fearing the arrival of Julius. Julius pursued Pompey to Greece. The two armies met at Pharsalus near Philippi in 48 B.C. During the battle Pompey fled from Pharsalus to Egypt with Julius in hot pursuit. When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him. However, Julius had a personal rule -- no leader defeated by Julius would be put to death. He would be encouraged, rather, to join forces with Julius. Upon arriving in Egypt and learning about Pompey’s death, Julius put to death the assassins of Pompey. ￼While in Egypt Julius developed a relationship with Cleopatra, teenage ruler of Egypt, who subsequently bore him a son. Cleopatra presumed that after Julius returned to Rome he would call for her and her son to join him there. When she learned that he would not do so, she grew bitter. (Image left of Cleopatra is found at http://www.ancient-egypt.info/2012/04/cleopatra-and-last-of-ptolemies-facts.html) Julius had now achieved sole power. Crassus, the third member of the triumvirate, was killed in battle in 53 B.C. at Harran in present-day Turkey while on his way north from Syria. Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared “Perpetual Dictator” by the Senate in 44 B.C. This was by the terms of the constitution to be a six-month appointment. However, in 43 B.C. they appointed Julius Caesar “Dictator for Life.” The appointment of Julius Caesar as dictator for life for all practical purposes marked the end of the Republic. This action by the Senate and the perceived arrogance of Julius greatly alarmed a group in the Senate led by Julius Brutus. Brutus was a close friend of Julius and had fought with him at Pharsalus against Pompey, but he was alarmed at the power grab by Julius To protect the Republic against a dictatorship, Brutus and others in the Senate made a bloody plan. On March 15, 44 B.C. (“the ides of March”) in a secret plot Julius Brutus and a group of 60 Senators lured Julius to the Senate and there assassinated him on the floor of the Senate Taking matters into their own hands they believed this to be the only way to preserve the Republic. 5.8. The Second Triumvirate and Establishing the Empire Roman Empire (27 B.C.) ￼Octavian, nephew of Julius, was appointed by the Senate to a new triumvirate together with Marc Antony and Lepidus in 43 B.C. The goal was to fill the leadership gap created by the death of Julius. Roman culture had so idealized the military that it was inconceivable for anyone but military leaders to be appointed to the triumvirate. Furthermore, the Senate by this point seemed to be intimidated by the military. It was not simply because of his personal attributes or that he was the nephew of Julius that caused the Senate to include Octavian. The fact was that Octavian had marched on Rome and demanded that the Senate appoint him as one of the consuls! (Image left, Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century, found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus) Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncle to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus. At his side was the younger Marc Antony. The three members of the second triumvirate agreed to divide the Republic among themselves -- Octavian took the West, Antony took the East, including Egypt, and Lepidus took Spain and North Africa. Perhaps the geographic separation would enable the second triumvirate succeed where the first had failed. Marc Antony, now residing in Egypt, soon made a romantic friendship with Cleopatra with whom he produced several children. To make matters worse, Antony was married to the sister of Octavian and Octavian, in turn, was married to the sister of Marc Antony! Thus the second triumvirate proved to be as unstable as the first. Octavian and Anthony despised each other and Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, was too weak a character to stand up to either. Octavian took two steps to accomplish sole rule. First, he arbitrarily and unilaterally dismissed Lepidus from the triumvirate. Second, he secretly stole the private will of Anthony and made its terms known to the Senate. Antony’s will provided for large land grants in Italy for the children he had sired with Cleopatra. It also called for his body to be returned to Alexandria at his death. When the Senate were informed of the terms of the will they were furious. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bring Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war. ￼Octavian led the Roman forces to Actium on the western coast of Greece in 31 B.C. Actium was a naval battle, pitting the forces of Octavian and Rome against those of Marc Antony and the Egyptian forces of Cleopatra. Octavian’s Roman forces won the battle. Marc Antony and Cleopatra both fled back to Egypt where they committed suicide. Cleopatra, according to legend used a poisonous snake in her bed to inflict the fatal wound. Her death placed the vast wealth of Egypt at Rome’s disposal and Egypt voluntarily became a province of the Roman Empire. (Map above from Wikipeida Commons at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_of_Actium_en.svg) Upon his triumphant return to Rome in 29 B.C., Octavian was proclaimed dictator by the Senate. By 27 B.C. he became the first Emperor of a new Roman Empire. The Republic was dead. The Empire was born. 5.9. The Julian Line of Emperors (27 B.C.-68 A.D.) Following the death of Julius, six emperors from his family line ruled successively from 27 B. C. to 68 A. D. Octavian was the first to be given the title of emperor in 27 B.C. He later assumed the title Augustus Caesar. He was a well-qualified leader and was the emperor who ordered the census which caused Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem. Tiberius was emperor at the time of the crucifixion of Jesus. Caligula was known as the mad emperor. His most insane act was to appoint his horse as a member of the Senate! Claudius was a respected older Senator leader when he succeeded Caligula, his nephew, in 47 A.D. and was the first emperor to be born outside of Rome. After his death in 54 A.D. his grand-nephew and adopted son, Nero became emperor. The last of the Julian line, Nero, became increasingly violent and unpredictable. He had his first wife killed, and kicked his second wife while pregnant to death. He ￼ordered the poisoning of his mother. He was the emperor known for: (1) the burning of Rome in 64 A.D., blaming it on Christians; (2) burning Christians as torches to light his garden parties; (3) persecution of Christians in Rome; (4) ordering Vespasian to put down the Jewish rebellion in Palestine; (5) supposing himself to be the world’s greatest artist, poet, musician, and charioteer, and (6) who in 67 A.D. in Rome killed the apostles, Peter (by crucifixion upside-down), and Paul (by beheading). When in 68 A.D. troops from Spain marched to Rome to end the embarrassment of Nero’s rule, he committed suicide. Some believe also that Nero was the emperor who sent John the Apostle to exile on the island of Patmos where he composed the Book of Revelation. (Bust of Nero at the Musei Capitolini, Rome, found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nero) 5.10. Year of the Four Emperors (69 A.D.) and the Flavian Line of Emperors At Nero’s death in 68 A.D. the “Year of the Four Emperors” in 69 A.D., witnessed four emperors come and go caused by assassination and suicide (Galba, Ottho, and Vitellius ). Vespasian, to become the fourth of the emperors in 69 A.D., was recalled from Palestine where he had been send in 67 A.D. by Nero to put down the Jewish Revolt. He was recalled to Rome in order quell the unrest. He was soon proclaimed emperor in December 69 A.D., bringing the deadly year to a close. Vespasian reigned until his death in 79 A.D. and restored peace and steady government to Rome. He was the first emperor in the new Flavian line of emperors. Titus, who he had left remaining in Palestine to complete the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., succeeded Vespasian as emperor in 79 A.D. Titus reigned from 79-81 A.D. He was then succeeded by his brother, Domitian, who many saw as a weaker candidate because he lacked the military zeal of his father and brother. Domitian, however, reigned from 81 A.D. until his assassination in 96 A.D. Domitian is known for his brief but brutal persecution of the Christian Church. Some believe that he is the emperor who exiled John the Apostle to the Island of Patmos. Others, as noted above, believe the exile of John was ordered by Nero in 65 A.D. Why is this important? The dating of the writing of the Book of Revelation by John while on Patmos determines whether the book was written prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. or after the event. Those who accept the early date under Nero interpret Revelation to apply primarily to the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple and sacrificial system, and ultimately the downfall of the Roman Empire, and do not see the book addressing primarily things which are to happen wo thousand or more years in the future. Those who accept the late date for the book view it as a prophecy about things to happen at the end of the age. The Flavian line brought relative peace to Rome. The Flavians brought the Jewish Revolt to a close in 70 A.D. with the destruction of Jerusalem. They secured Roman control of Britain and strengthened the borders with the Germanic tribes. They passed new tax codes to restore the Roman treasury and increased the silver base for the Roman currency. During the reign of Titus several natural calamities occurred. Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D. and destroyed the nearby towns of Herculaneum and Pompeii. In 80 A.D. a second major fire broke out in Rome, followed by a severe plague. Nevertheless, significant buildings were erected by the Flavians. Most notable was the Colosseum. 5.11. The Jewish Revolt of 66 A.D. and the Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 A.D. ￼ Destruction of Jerusalem by Ercole de’ Roberti Nationalist Jews began a revolt against their Roman lords in 66 A.D. The countryside was divided between several factions.The Hellenized Jews had become European in their dress, language, and culture. The Pharisees desperately attempted to keep intact Judaism and temple worship. The Zealots tended to be hot-headed nationalists bent on independence, not only from Rome, but also from what was perceived to me a corrupt priesthood. The civil war was directed not only at Rome, but was conducted within Jerusalem by one faction against the other. For instance, during one part of the siege laid by the Romans, the Zealots destroyed food supplies that were stored in the city in order to gain an advantage over their rival factions. The Zealots also dressed as women to disguise themselves and plunged daggers into rivals on the streets of Jerusalem. Nero sends Vespasian The outright rebellion on the part of the Zealots caused Nero in 67 A.D. to send his top general, Vespasian, to Israel to settle the chaos. Vespasian with 60,000 Roman legionnaires worked his way south through Syria, Samaria, and northern Judah, systematically wiping out all resistance to Rome’s authority. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities, and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. Vespasian laid initial siege to Jerusalem in 68 A.D. but withdraw to Syria to consult with the governor of Syria. Meanwhile a bigger problem had arisen. Nero died in 68 A.D. and together Vespasian with troops from Egypt and the Danube determined to overthrow Vitellius, the third emperor in two years. Peace must be restored to Rome. Vespasian becomes Emperor Vespasian gained control of the Roman wheat supply in Egypt and North Africa and thereby announced his intentions. He then led his loyal troops to Rome and became the new emperor in 69 A.D. He reigned from 69 A.D. until his death in 79 A.D. When Vespasian left with his troops to go north, the Jews, and especially the Zealots, saw this as a sign of weakness. The conflicts within the walls of Jerusalem intensified. A Corrupt Priesthood Prior to the arrival of Vespasian, civil war was taking place inside of Jerusalem The Hellenized Jews, the Pharisees, the Zealots, and the ordinary people were locked in a chaos of robbery, intrigue, murder, and assassination. The Zealots attempted to use chaos and fear to gain control over the city. For three generations the high priest selected to lead temple worship did not come from the line of Aaron, as prescribed in Scripture. The position of high priest was up for the highest bidder. In protest, many of the faithful, a probably led by the men who should legally have become high priest, left Jerusalem for Masada in the south east. Some believe these were the Essenes who kept the Dead Sea Scrolls along the shores of the Dead Sea. The high priest served as a sort of liaison between Roman authority and the Jewish population. High priests, drawn from the Sadducean aristocracy, received their appointment from Rome since the time of Herod the Great, and Rome looked to high priests to keep the Jewish populace in line. These high priests were rejected by the conservative, religious party as political stooges of the Romans and certainly not lawfully selected high priests. Furthermore, Jewish worship had so declined that prostitutes, according to Josephus the Jewish historian of the Roman Empire and school mate of Titus, were plying their trade inside the temple walls! This further inflamed the situation inside the city and temple walls. Titus Takes Charge Vespasian gave command to his son, Titus, who laid new siege to Jerusalem in 70 A.D. He placed three legions around the western sides of the city and a fourth on the east on ￼the Mount of Olives. When the Passover season arrived, Titus “politely” allowed the thousands of pilgrims to enter the city, but then refused to allow them to leave. This put enormous strains on the food and water supplies and virtually broke down all health and sanitation systems. (Image left: Titus, Vatican Museums, Vatican City, roman-empire.net) Things became so desperate in the city that people resorted eating animal manure, and there is even a reported case of cannibalism. Those who attempted to escape were quickly seized and killed. When it was discovered that some attempted to escape after having swallowed the gold jewelry and coins, the Romans hired Arabs to slit the stomachs of those who attempted to flee in order to seek for the hidden gold. The common method the Romans used was crucifixion. Josephus states that the stench of the dead on crosses was so great that legionnaires became sick at the odor. Over the walls Finally, after months of siege, the Romans managed to scale the walls, burn the temple and burn the city. They desecrated the temple and slaughtered all they could find. Their goal was to not leave the city with one citizen surviving. The deaths totaled over a million. Jesus foretold the calamity Jesus instructed his disciples and they in turn the other Christians in Jerusalem about this impending terror. His words are recorded in chapter 24: “Jesus left the temple and was walking away when his disciples came up to him to call his attention to its buildings.’Do you see all these things?’ he asked. ‘I tell you the truth, not one stone here will be left on another; every one will be thrown down. . . I tell you the truth, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened. Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.’” (See also Luke 21) The Christians were warned by the prophecy of Jesus to flee the city when they saw wars, rumors of wars, earthquakes and the other accompanying events. They did so, and there is not one recorded death of a Christian during the Roman siege. Christians fled to Pella in present-day Jordan and to Damascus in Syria. The End of Temple Worship The temple worship in Jerusalem came to an end, as did the priesthood and the sacrificial system. This was God’s judgement upon a people who rejected him, although he presented himself to them as their Messiah. ￼ It was God’s final statement in the destroying of Jerusalem that the new Sacrifice had come, Jesus, the Lamb of God, He was now the High Priest. He was now the Temple. He was the source of eternal life. The old had vanished and the new had come. (Image above, The sack of Jerusalem, from the inside wall of the Arch of Titus, Rome, found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Jerusalem_(70)) To read an eyewitness account of the celebration in Rome acclaiming the victory over the Jews in Jerusalem see "Rome Celebrates the Vanquishing of the Jews, 70" EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (2008). The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple shook the world of the Middle East. It was a calamity of the greatest proportion! But it was a further evidence of the truthfulness of the message of Jesus, that in him alone is found the forgiveness of sins and the free gift of eternal life. 5.12. The “Five Good Emperors” of the Nerva-Antonine Dynasty (96-180 A.D.) This dynasty brought excellent administrative leadership to the Empire through the absolute rule of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius were exceptional administrative leaders. With the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 A.D. the Pax Romana came to a close. 5.13. The Pax Romana and Rome’s Contributions to Western Civilization ￼ The Pax Romana, or “Peace of Rome,” was a period in the empire from 27 B.C. to 180 A.D. where relative peace and order were restored and maintained. Highways could be traveled in peace and safety. Laws were generally and equally applied in all the provinces. There were few attempts by neighboring peoples to invade the empire. The borders were secure. Citizenship was granted to free persons in the empire. Expansion into the Balkans, Spain, Britain, Gaul, Persia, and North Africa produced the greatest era of Romanization. (Image above, Roman aquaduct, Pont du Gard, Roman Gaul. The upper tier carried water and the lower a roadway across the river, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_aqueduct) A large system of aqueducts, sewer systems, and medicine improved the health of the empire. The large sysem of aqueducts supplied water to the cities and military bases. Some were fed by manmade reservoirs, one of the earliest, large scale attempts to manage natural resources. 53,000 miles of well-built roads connected the major cities. Roman highway systems connected virtually every part of the empire. They were so well-constructed that some are still in use today. The road networks were built throughout Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, including the famed Apian Way that connected major cities and military bases in Italy with Rome. The saying was common in the Empire that “all roads lead to Rome.”￼ (Image right, Roman road in Great Britain, found at Primary History - Romans - Roads and places bbc.co.uk, http://images.google.com/imgres?q=roman+roads) Julius Caesar developed a calendar containing 12 months and 365 days which was universally adopted in the domains of the Empire. The Julian Calendar provided the names of the months used world-wide and served as Europe’s unified calendar until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII developed the Gregorian Calendar. The Gregorian calendar better provided for the extra minutes each year unaccounted for due to the earth’s revolutions around the sun, producing the necessity of the “leap year,” and better account for the solar equinox which occurs twice each year around September 22 and March 20, at which time the sun crosses the celestial equator, when day and night are of equal length. The Gregorian calendar also attempted to make more uniform the dates when Easter is celebrated in the Christian Church. The Julian calendar and the Gregorian calendar both contain the same twelve months: 1 - January - 31 days (named for the Roman god Janus) 2 - February - 28 days; 29 days in leap years (named for the Latin term februum, or cleansing because was the month for ceremonial washings in ancient Rome) 3 -March - 31 days - named for Mars, the god of war, the month when the Roman armies prepared for new summer campaigns 4 - April - 30 days -- named for the Latin aperire, “to open,” the month when trees open new leaves 5 - May - 31 days -- named for the goddess Maia, the goddess of growth 6 - June - 30 days -- named for Juno, the queen of the Roman gods 7 - July - 31 days -- Julio, named for Julius Caesar 8 - August - 31 days -- named for Augustus, the Emperor 9 - September - 30 days -- Latin number “seven” (septem)-- seventh month for military campaigns counting from March 10 - October - 31 days -- Latin number “eight” (octo) -- eighth month counting from March 11 - November - 30 days -- Latin number “nine” (novem) counting from March 12 - December - 31 days -- Latin number “ten” (decem) counting from March The Gregorian calendar has four months with a length of 30 days and seven months that are 31 days long. February is the only month that is 28 days long in common years and 29 days long in leap years. Central heating in homes was developed in construction methods that allowed for air spaces under houses through which hot air from furnaces could circulate. Public restrooms and public baths were also introduced by the Romans, although public toilets were present earlier in Greece, also. Concrete was invented by the Romans, making possible the large construction projects--stadiums, theaters, basilicas, aqueducts, basilicas. Roman architecture first used arches in constructing aqueducts, bridges, and buildings. Arches could support heavier loads than columns and flat roofs by distributing the weight downward through each segment of the arch’s construction. ￼￼ Roman architecture first used domes in constructing temples, which made possible larger unsupported ceilings in public buildings. Most famous of Roman domed buildings was the Pantheon in Rome, the temple dedicated to the worship and honoring of “all the gods,” which is what the word “pantheon” means in Greek. (Images below: the Pantheon in Rome and its famed domed roof structure.) ￼￼ Latin became the “lingua franca” throughout the empire and produced the foundation for the “Romance languages” -- Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian. Latin also provided grammar and vocabulary items for English. There are at least 333 terms that are literally the same in spelling and meaning in both Latin and English. For examples see the accompanying PowerPoint, “Contributions of Rome” posted on DropBox. 5.14. Persecution of the Church by Diocletian and Galerius (303 A.D.) A successive line of emperors ruled absolutely from Rome over an empire that covered most of the known world. Some of the most notable were Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, and Diocletian. The Christian Church grew rapidly throughout the empire and very little opposition to the Church was experienced after the time of Trajan. After Trajan, Christians became progressively accepted and many were appointed to positions in government and the military, and many others held important positions as teachers and professors. When Diocletian was declared emperor in 284 A.D.he allowed Christians freedom and treated them with toleration. The empire was so large that in 293 A.D. he created four large administrative regions within the empire and gave leadership of them to three other men. Diocletian ruled in the East and appointed Maximian as emperor in the West. He placed two other men under Maximian and himself as junior partners, so-to-speak -- Constantius in Gaul as a junior partner under Maximian, and Galerius in the east under Diocletian, giving to them the title Augustus. The idea was that when either Diocletian or Maximian would die or retire, the junior partners would become the next emperors. The goal was to prevent chaos at the death of an emperor and to provide orderly succession of leadership. Galerius, a pagan, persuaded Diocletian to bring waves of persecution on the Church. Galerius viewed the Church as a disruption to peace and unity in the Empire. Persecution broke out in 297 A.D. Churches were destroyed and church-owned land was confiscated. Christians were required to make sacrifices to the gods or face imprisonment, exile, or death. Government workers, teachers, and professors were removed from their positions. A large number of ministers and bishops were imprisoned. This was to be the last wide-spread persecution of the Church. It was an intense persecution lasting until 311 A.D. 5.15. Constantine the Christian Emperor (emperor from 306 A.D. - 337 A.D.) At the death of Constantius in 306 A.D., his son, Constantine was declared emperor by his father’s troops in Gaul and Britain to succeed his father as their leader. Galerius, now emperor in the East, approved the new emperor. Constantine became emperor over Britain, Gaul, and Spain. Licinius was appointed Augustus in the East. The new trio of emperors beginning in 306 A.D. was composed of Constantine in Spain, Gaul, and Britain, and Galerius in Rome, and with Licinius, the Augustus of Galerius, in the East (Egypt). The elevation of Constantine marked the beginning of a new Empire, an Empire to be greatly impacted by the Christian Church. (See Unit 6 for more about Constantine.) 5.16 Timeline of the Roman Republic and Empire ￼ 5.17 List of important Emperors There will certainly be emperors who would be disappointed that they are not included in the chart below. Other history teachers would perhaps include other emperors in a list they compile. But for this study, the following are listed as emperors and lines of emperors that are worth remembering. ￼ What’s Worth Knowing? Due to a variety of factors, including geography, military strength, and leadership, the city of Rome was over time able to gain control over central and southern Italy. Rome was first governed by a monarchy which was replaced by a Republic -- the Republic provided a separation of powers and responsibilities, primarily concentrated in the Senate and among several important assemblies. Tensions and conflict between the Patricians and the Plebeians escalated and broke out into hostilities which threatened the peace and security of Rome. A first triumvirate was formed (Julius, Pompey, Crassus), seeking leadership and resolution to the conflict and granting authority. Julius Caesar emerged as the leader of the first triumvirate and was proclaimed “Perpetual Dictator.” Julius’ assassination on the floor of the Senate by Brutus resulted in the formation of the second triumvirate composed of Octavian, Marc Anthony, and Lepidus. Marc Anthony despised Octavian and spent most of his time in Egypt with the Eastern troops. Lepidus foolishly attempted to take authority over Octavian’s troops and was expelled by Octavian from the triumvirate. Although married to Octavian’s sister, Marc Anthony lived openly with Cleopatra in Alexandria, Egypt. (Cleopatra earlier had a son with Julius Caesar.) The clash between Octavian and Anthony was settled at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, with Anthony and Cleopatra driven back to Alexandria where both committed suicide. Octavian, a member of the Julian line, was given the title, Augustus, by the Roman Senate. He became the first bona fide Emperor and the second of six in the Julian line to rule Rome. He was emperor when Jesus was born. Tiberius Caesar was emperor when Jesus was crucified. The last of the Julian line, Nero, was emperor who killed the two apostles, Peter and Paul, in Rome in 67 AD. Rome grew to a huge empire that controlled almost all of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea from the Euphrates on the East to the Atlantic Ocean on the west, as well as Gaul (France), Spain, and England. The Roman Republic lasted for almost 500 years. The Roman Empire lasted for more than 400 years. Most roots of Western civilization can be traced to elements that existed in the Roman Empire from about 27 B.C. to 189 A.D. Rome contributed roads, bridges, architecture, citizenship, language, republicanism, and culture to Europe -- producing the famed Pax Romana. It later protected and expanded Christianity in the empire. The rise of the Roman Empire was foretold in the dream of the Persian king, Nebuchadnezzar, as interpreted by Daniel in his prophecy 2:1-45. The Roman Empire provided the environment (language, roads) that enabled the Christian Church to grow throughout the known world. Ultimately, the Christian Church conquered the Roman Empire through the faithful witness of Christians throughout the empire and with the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to the Christian faith. Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 A.D., acknowledging freedom of religion in the Empire and granting legal legitimacy to Christianity. Emperor Theodocius declared Christianity the only official religion in the Empire (380 A.D.) and banned the worship of pagan gods. Important Persons, Places, and Events Rome Plebians Patricians Carthage Punic Wars Hannibal Battle of Pharsalus Battle of Actium Battle of Milvian Bridge Battle of Adrianople #1 Battle of Adrianople #2 Octavian (Augustus) Pax Romana Julian Line of Emperors Nero Goths Huns Danube River Burning of Rome General Titus Virgil Diocletian Hadrian’s Wall Marc Anthony Constantine Council of Nicea Ptolemy Julius Caesar Triumverate #1 and #2 Roman Senate Republic Empire Theodocius I Cleopatra of Egypt Licinius Assignments Read the entirety of this unit. Study the various members of the Julian Line and commit them to memory. Read Daniel 2:1-45 -- “Daniel’s Vision” and identify the four major sections of the image Produce two essays using either a word processor or PowerPoint/Keynote featuring any two of the following: (1) a featured member of the Julian Line; (2) Constantine; (3) the Pax Romana; or, (4) How Christianity Conquered the Empire. You may do a third and fourth for extra credit. See course introduction for instructions on how to construct an essay for this course. What You Will Be Able To Do By The End Of This Unit: Reproduce from memory the timeline for this unit. Describe in a short essay without notes how the Church conquered the Empire. Define in short response or multiple choice using an online test the items in the Vocabulary for this unit. Describe the interaction between the Goths and the Romans, resulting ultimately in the sacking of Rome in 476 A.D. Key Dates: 550 BC -- Romulus founds the first Roman monarchy 700 BC -- the Republic replaces the monarchy 44 BC -- Julius is assassinated on the floor of the Senate 27 BC -- Octavian enthroned as the first of the Roman emperors -- the Empire replaces the Republic 33 AD -- Jesus is crucified in Jerusalem 64 AD -- Rome burned 67 AD -- Nero blamed Christians for the burning of Rome 68 AD -- Nero committed suicide 70 AD -- Vespatian and Titus lay siege to Jerusalem and destroy the city and the temple 312 AD -- Constantine defeats Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus and becomes the first Christian emperor 313 AD -- Edict of Milan 324 AD -- founding of Constantinople 325 AD -- Council of Nicaea -- deity of Jesus affirmed 380 AD -- Edict of Theodosius 476 AD -- Fall of Rome at hands of Germanic tribes
Unit 5 - The Roman Republic and Empire The ￼Roman Republic (above) from 500 BC to the death of Julius Caesar 44 BC The Roman Empire (below) from death of Julius Caesar (44 BC) to death of Marcus Aurelius (180 AD) The Roman Empire from death of Julius Caesar (44 BC) to death M￼arcus Aurelius (190 AD) 5.1. Early Rome Much of what we know about early Italy come from the Histora Naturalis by Pliny the Elder which was published around 77-79 A.D. You can read the work’s description of ear...